(Data Source: 1990 and 2000 Census compiled into the
Lawndale Housing Element)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.   POPULATION GROWTH TRENDS (TABLE 1)
2.   AGE CHARACTERISTICS
3.   AGE DISTRIBUTION (TABLE 2)
4.   RACE AND ETHNICITY
5.   RACE AND ETHNICITY (TABLE 3)
6.   OCCUPATIONS HELD BY LAWNDALE RESIDENTS (TABLE 4)
7.   HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS
8.   OVERCROWDING
9.   INDICATORS OF OVERCROWDING BY CENSUS TRACT (TABLE 5)
10. INCOME DISTRIBUTION
11. 1989 HOUSEHOLD INCOME DISTRIBUTION (TABLE 6)
12. HOUSING AFFORDABILITY AND OVERPAYMENT
13. SUMMARY OF OVERPAYMENT (TABLE 7)
14. SPECIAL NEEDS GROUP
15. SUMMARY OF SPECIAL HOUSING NEEDS (TABLE 8)
16. ELDERLY
17. DISABLED
18. LARGE HOUSEHOLDS
19. FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS
20. HOMELESS

 

 


 

1. Population Growth Trends

TABLE 1

Jurisdiction

1990

1995

Change
1990-1995

2000

Change
1995-2000

Lawndale

27,331

29,300

+7.2%

31,711

+8.2%

City of Los Angeles

3,485,398

3,638,148

+4.4%

3,694,820

+1.5%

County of Los Angeles

8,863,164

9,369,848

+5.7%

9,519,338

+1.6%

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:
1. 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census
2. State Department of Finance, Population and Housing Estimates for January 1995.


2. Age Characteristic

The age structure of a population is an important factor in evaluating housing needs and projecting the direction of future housing development. Table II-2 illustrates the age distribution of Lawndale residents in 1990 and 2000, and the proportionate age distribution of Los Angeles County residents in 2000.

Lawndale’s median age increased during 1990 thru 2000 from 28.7 to 29.3 years. However, this is still well below the Countywide median age of 32.0, reflecting the greater proportion of young children age 5-9 and young adults age 20-34 in Lawndale.

During the last ten years, Lawndale has maintained a consistent proportion of residents between the ages of 25 and 44, with over 35% of the City’s population falling in this age group in 2000. The City’s age structure may represent a potential increase in the need for first-time home ownership opportunities. In addition, since these age groups are typically the ones in which people have young children, there may be a need for affordable ownership as well as rental units that have three or more bedrooms to accommodate families.

The proportion of those aged 45-54 in 1990 and 2000 has increased from 8.5 percent and 10.6 percent.  This percentage should increase during each Census, due to the baby boomers reaching retirement age.   Some of these people may choose to remain in Lawndale after retirement, and at that point, will be at an age where they may need special services and supportive housing.

 


 

3. Age Distribution

TABLE 2

 

1990

2000

Age Group

Persons

% of Total

Persons

% of Total

L.A. County % of Total

Under 5 years

5-9

10-14

15-19

20-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75 and over

2,642

2,074

1,710

1,782

2,797

6,873

4,016

2,320

1,548

1,031

538

9.7%

7.6%

6.3%

6.5%

10.2%

25.0%

14.7%

8.5%

5.7%

3.8%

2.0%

2,950

3,222

2,589

2,205

2,376

6,178

5,190

3,353

1,860

1,123

665

9.3%

10.2%

8.2%

7.0%

7.5%

19.5%

16.4%

10.6%

5.9%

3.5%

2.1%

7.7%

8.4%

7.6%

7.2%

7.4%

16.6%

15.9%

12.1%

16.2%

5.2%

4.5%

Total

Median Age

27,331

28.7

100.0%

31,711

29.3

100.0%

100.0%

32.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census.


4. Race and Ethnicity

The racial and ethnic composition of a population affects housing needs because of the unique household characteristics of different racial/ethnic groups. For example, the average household size of Hispanic households in Lawndale is 4.14 persons, compared to 3.41 for Asian households, 2.97 for Black households, and 2.91 for White households. With significant growth in the City’s Hispanic population, this data suggests an increased need for housing units with three or more bedrooms. Table II-3 shows the change in the racial/ethnic group in the Los Angeles County population in 2000.

The City experienced a dramatic change in its ethnic composition during the 1980s and 90s. Those who reported themselves as White decreased from 77 percent to 46 percent of the population between 1980 and 1990.  The 90s seemed to duplicate another large decrease in the White population, 46 percent dropped to 21.9 percent. The Hispanic population has grown 17.7 percent in just ten years.   Increasing from 34.4 percent to 52.1 percent of the total population in Lawndale. The African American population has increased over 60 percent.  Even though this increase may seem high, the actual count of the population is still considered to be a minority.  The Asian population has decreased from 11.2 percent to 9.4 percent.


The median is the number exactly in the middle of a distribution of numbers. That is, 50 percent of the numbers in the distribution are above the median, and 50 percent of the numbers are below the median.


In 1990, the Hispanic category was added as a main, exclusively reported category. The large decrease in those reporting themselves as "Other" in 1990 reflects this revised category.  Also, the U.S. Census has created new categories for individuals to choose from when describing their race.  For example, two or more races, is now considered a category of their own.

TABLE 3

 

1990

2000

Race/Ethnicity

Persons

% of Total

Persons

% of Total

Los Angeles County
% of Total

White

Black

Native American

Asian

Native Hawaiian

Some other race alone

Hispanic

Two or more races

12,557

2,077

154

3,054

N/A

94


9,395

N/A

46.0%

7.6%

0.6%

11.2%

N/A

0.3%


34.4%

N/A

6,946

3,852

111

2,991

256

84


16,515

956

 

21.9%

12.1%

0.4%

9.4%

0.8%

0.3%


52.1%

3.0%

31.1%

9.5%

.3%

11.8%

.2%

.2%

44.6%

2.3%

Total

27,331

100.0%

31,711

100.0%

100.0%

Source: 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census.


6. OCCUPATIONS HELD BY LAWNDALE RESIDENTS
TABLE 4

Occupations

Number

Percent

Managerial/ Professional

Sales and Office Occupations

Service Occupations

Construction, Extraction, & Maintenance

Production, Transportation, & Material Moving

Farming, Fishing, & Forestry

2,718

4,030

2,765

1,421

 

2,264

 

 

N/A

 

 

20.6%

30.5%

21.0%

10.8%

 

17.1%

 

Total Employed Civilian Population 16 years and over

13,198

100.0%

Source: 2000 U.S. Census, DP-3 Data based on a sample.

According to the 2000 Census, there were 14,306 Lawndale residents in the labor force, representing a labor force participation rate of approximately 64 percent of persons between the ages of 16 and 64.  Over twenty percent of the City’s labor force was employed in managerial/professional jobs.   Approximately 30 percent were employed in sales and office positions, and 10 percent were employed in construction, extraction, maintenance positions. These are among the higher paying jobs.

Seventeen percent of the labor force was employed in production, transportation, and material moving. These occupations generally yield lower incomes than managerial/professional jobs.

 


The 2000 Census information regarding Occupations/Labor Force will not be available until Fall 2002.  Currently, they use sample data to generate these percentages.


 

7. HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS

Household Composition and Size


The characteristics of the households in a city are important indicators of the type of housing needed in that community. The U.S. Census defines a household as all persons who occupy a housing unit, regardless of whether these persons are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. People living in retirement or convalescent homes, dormitories, or other group living situations are not considered households.

The average family size in the city of Lawndale consists of 3.8 persons.  As with most cities families represented the majority (67 percent) of Lawndale’s 9,227 households in 1990. Among the 3,027 non-family households, 2,003 were single-person households, including 447 elderly persons living alone. Average household size in the City increased slightly between 1980 and 1990 from 2.88 to 2.95, suggesting that there may be a need for large-size units (i.e. those with three or more bedrooms).

 

Overcrowding

The federal government defines an overcrowded household as one with more than one person per room, excluding bathrooms, kitchens, hallways, and porches. Overcrowding in households results from either a lack of affordable housing (which forces more than one household to live together, or a large-family household living in a too-small unit) and/or a lack of available housing units of adequate size.

According to the 1990 Census, 1,829 (almost 20 percent) of the total households were overcrowded in Lawndale, representing a significant increase over 1980, when 1,152 (14 percent of the occupied units) of the City’s households were defined as overcrowded. Overcrowding among renter-households was more prevalent than among owner-households with 1,493 (24 percent) of the City’s renter-households living in overcrowded conditions, compared to 336 (11.6 percent) of the City’s owner-households. Countywide, 19 percent of all households are defined as overcrowded by the census, a rate comparable to the City’s.

Table II-6 shows data on overcrowding by the City’s four census tracts, compared with median income, persons in poverty, and large households. The location of these tracts is shown on Figure 2.

Census tract 6038 in 5h3 northeast part of the City had the highest number of overcrowded households. In addition, this census tract had the highest number of persons with incomes below poverty level, indicating a lack of ability to pay for housing of adequate size. Census tract 6040 in the southwest part of the City had the next highest number of overcrowded households, as well as the lowest median income of all the census tracts, and the highest number of large households. 

 

9.  INDICATORS OF OVERCROWDING BY CENSUS TRACT (1990)

TABLE 5

Census Tract

No. of Overcrowded Households

Median Income

No. of Persons with Incomes Below Poverty Level (a)

No. of Large (b) Households

6038

557

$34,736

1,475

439

6039

396

$38,668

682

334

6040

486

$32,521

935

450

6041

390

$34,415

458

338

Total

1,829

$34,552

3,550

1,561

Source: 1990 U.S. Census


The 2000 Census information regarding Overcrowding in the households will not be available until Fall 2002.


a. The poverty threshold as defined by the 1990 Census varies depending on household size. The poverty threshold for a family of four was $12,674.

    A large family household is one with five or more members.

 

 


 

10.  INCOME DISTRIBUTION

In 1999, the median household income in Lawndale was $39,012.  This amount was based on sample data gathered by the Census.   Table II-6 shows the city’s household income distribution. As shown in this table, over 40 percent of the City’s households earned between $35,000 and $74,999, and 15 percent of the City’s households reported incomes of $14,999 or less.  The median family income as of 1999 was $37,909. 

 

11.  1999 HOUSEHOLD INCOME DISTRIBUTION

TABLE 6

Income Level

No. of Households

% of Total

Less than $10,000

$10,000-$14,999

$15,000-$24,999

$25,000-$34,999

$35,000-$49,999

$50,000-74,999

$75,000-$99,999

$100,000-$149,999

$150,000-$199,999

$200,000+

840

597

1.356

1,390

1,909

2,182

709

486

69

29

8.8

6.2

14.2

14.5

20.0

22.8

7.4

5.1

0.7

0.3

 

 

Total

9,567

100.0%

 SOURCE: 2000 U.S. Census Sample Tape File 3 (5% sample) income distribution extrapolated for Summary Tape File 1 (100%) total number of households.


Housing Affordability and Overpayment

The issue of housing affordability is becoming difficult to explain.  According to California Association of Realtors, as of May of 2002, in Los Angeles the median home price climbed 18.1 percent to $274,830.  The statewide median home price soared to $321,130.  Lawndale is steadily racing to reach to the Los Angeles median prices.  The city hit a high of $234,000, and moving up by the day.  As the prices increases, the affordability index drops.  Last year the index was in the mid thirties (34%), but now we have plummeted into the high twenties (27%).  One of the major factors that allow the city to follow in the large increases is location.  Lawndale is less than 5 miles away from the waters of Redondo Beach and Manhattan Beach.  The city is centralized in an area that provides easy access to the 405 Freeway, which closely connects to 105 and 110 Freeway.     

As state previously, State and Federal standards specify that a household overpays for its housing if it spends more than 30 percent of its gross income on housing. A household that is spending more than it can afford for housing has less money available for other necessities and emergency expenditures. Lower income households overpaying for housing are more likely to be at risk of becoming homeless than other households. Renter-households overpay for their housing costs more often than owner-households. Because renter-households tend to be lower income than homeowners, overpayment affects renter-households more seriously. In addition, overpayment by owners is considered less serious than overpayment by renters because they have more options than renters, and are therefore less likely to become homeless. That is, owners are building equity, and have the option of selling the home and possibly obtaining less expensive housing, refinancing, or using the equity in the home to obtain a loan.

According to the 2000 Census, there were 9,555 occupied housing units in Lawndale; 3,177 (33.2%) were owner-households and 6,378 (66.8%) were renter-households.

 TABLE 7

SUMMARY OF OVERPAYMENT

Overpaying
Households

Very Low
Incomes

Low
Income

Moderate
Income

Upper
Income

Total

Renters

Owners

TOTAL

649

122

771

852

72

771

1,192

180

1,372

202

393

595

2,895

767

3,662

Source: 1990 U.S. Census


The 2000 Census information regarding Overpayment will not be available until Fall 2002.


The 1990 Census reported 9,227 occupied housing units.  Of those units 2,894 (31%) were owner-occupied and 6,333 (69%) were renter-occupied.  Of the owner-households, 767 (26.5%) were spending more than 30 percent of their income on housing. Of the renter-households, 2,895 (46%) were spending more than 30 percent of their income on housing. Table II-8 shows the income categories of these "overpaying" households.

According to the Census, an estimated 771 very low-income Lawndale households were spending more than 30 percent of their income on housing. Eighty-four percent of those households were renters, and represent nearly 23 percent of the total renter-households in Lawndale. These statistics on overpayment among the renter population indicated a need for more affordable rental housing in Lawndale, and/or rent subsidies for low-income households. This extent of overpayment may also contribute to the unit overcrowding previously described. That is, adequately sized housing may be available, but households may not be able to afford it and are instead squeezing more than one household into a unit.

Among the estimated 924 low-income households that overpaid for housing, 852 were renters and 72 were owners. As shown in Table II-8, housing overpayment was far more extensive among renters than owners in the very low, and moderate-income groups. In the upper-income group, owners were more likely to overpay for housing.


Special Needs Group

Certain segments of the population may have a more difficult time finding decent, affordable housing due to their special circumstances or needs. These "special needs" households include elderly persons, disabled persons, large households, female-headed households, and the homeless.

TABLE 8

SUMMARY OF SPECIAL HOUSING NEEDS

Special Needs Group

Number of
Households/Persons

Percent of Total
Households/Persons

Households with Head Age 65+

Disabled Persons

Large Households

Female-Headed Households /With Children

 

911

 

 

1,561

 

2277

1111

9.5%

 

 

14.2%(total pop.)

 

24%

 

11.6%

Source: 2000 U.S. Census

Elderly

As some people age, their housing needs change. Special needs of many households containing older adults over the age of 65 result from their lower, fixed incomes, physical and developmental disabilities, or dependence needs.

According to the 2000 Census, 910 of the Lawndale’s households (9.5 percent of total households) are headed by elderly persons. Of these, 426 are single-person households. Elderly persons who live alone may have special housing needs due to a need for assistance with finances and with activities of daily living.

The 2000 Census also indicated that among the City’s 1788 elderly persons, 126 were age 85 and over. These residents are more likely to be the "frail elderly" and may require more housing assistance and supportive services than other elderly.

Disabled

Physical and developmental disabilities can hinder access to housing units of traditional design, and potentially limit the ability to earn an adequate income. The 2000 Census contains data on persons who have work disabilities, mobility, and/or self-care limitations. According to the 2000 Census, there were 4,492 persons over the age of 21 (14.2 percent of the total population) in Lawndale who are considered to have a disability.  As the City’s population continues to age, increases in the disabled population can be anticipated.

Large Households

Large households are identified as a group with special housing needs based on the limited availability of affordable, adequately sized housing units. It is not uncommon for large households to have lower incomes. To save on housing costs, many lower income large households resort to residing in smaller units, frequently resulting in overcrowded living conditions.

The 2000 Census reported 2277 households in Lawndale with five or more members, representing 24 percent of the total households. This percentage is up 7 percent compared to the 1990 Census information.  

Female-Headed Households

Single-parent households require special consideration and assistance because of their greater need for affordable and accessible day care, health care, and other supportive services. Female headed households with children in particular tend to have lower incomes than other types of households, which limits their housing options and access to supportive services. In 2000, the Census reported 1,818 female-headed households in Lawndale, 1111 of these households had children. Of the 1,818 female-headed households, 23.2 percent were defined as living in poverty.  These households need assistance with housing subsidies, as well as accessible and affordable day care and other supportive services.

Homeless

Throughout the country, homelessness has become an increasing problem. Factors contributing to the rise in the number of homeless people include the economic recession, a general lack of housing affordable to lower income persons, reductions in public subsidies to the poor, and the de-institutionalization of the mentally ill.

Currently, we do not have a accurate count on the number of homeless that reside in the City of Lawndale.   Also, it has been widely acknowledged that the methodology used in the Census for estimating the number of homeless was ineffective in systematically identifying and quantifying the numbers of homeless persons, which resulted in a substantial undercount. This estimate does not include people who have shelter in vacant buildings, shacks, or vehicles. There are also some homeless that reside in the bushes adjacent the 405 Freeway on- and off-ramps.  However, the City does have several short-term housing and shelters, such as The House of Yahweh, Dallas House, and the Herbert Benton House.  These shelters are not only available to the homeless, they assist HIV/AIDS victims too.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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